What is CLR (Common Language Runtime)?


CLR is a part of .NET Framework which manages the execution of several supported .NET languages, allowing them to share Common Object-Oriented Classes. CLR is somewhat comparable to Java Virtual Machine. Microsoft refers to its Common Language Runtime as “Managed Execution Environment“. 

CLR held responsible for these important activities:

  1. Garbage Collection: CLR automatically manages memory, thus eliminating memory leaks. When objects are not referred, GC (Garbage Collector) automatically releases those memory thus providing efficient memory management.
  2. CAS (Code Access Security): CAS grants rights to program depending on the security configuration of the machine. For instance, if the program has rights to edit or create a new file but not  to delete a file. CAS ensures that the code runs under the environment of machines security configuration.
  3. CV (Code Verification): This ensures proper code execution and type safety while the code runs. It prevents the source code to perform illegal operation such as accessing invalid memory locations etc.
  4. IL to Native code Translation/Optimization: CLR uses JIT and compiles the IL code to machine code and then executes. CLR also determines depending on platform what is optimized way of running the IL code.

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